Work-family Interactions and the Effects on Career Satisfaction
|The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:|
HILL, K. L., SANDERS, S. J., & WILSON, N. M. (2002). Work-family Interactions and the Effects on Career Satisfaction. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 5. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved July 1, 2022
KEVIN HILL, NICHOLAS WILSON, & SHANNA SANDERS
Missouri Western State University DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY
Sponsored by: Brian Cronk (email@example.com)
|The purpose of this study is to determine if work-family conflict and job type make a difference with career satisfaction, and whether or not more conflict with a job increases family conflict. Individuals with high work-family conflict scores should experience less job satisfaction than individuals with low work-family conflict scores. The participants included thirty-eight employees from the state government and forty-seven employees from retail sales. These participants were given two pen or pencil surveys to measure work-family conflict and job satisfaction. The results indicated a non-significant trend in retail sales employees encountering more work-family conflict than state employees. All other variables measured showed no significance. The general findings indicate that there is no difference in levels of job satisfaction and type of employment. This study could be very useful for future studies in determining if there is actually a difference in job satisfaction and work-family conflict scores. For future studies there should be more participants from different job types to account for poor response rates. |
INTRODUCTION Since the early 1930’s and the conclusion of the Hawthorne (1933) studies there has been a great interest in job satisfaction found in the work place. After this study for several years following the beneficial effects of high job satisfaction was taken for granted. Herzberg (1957) looked at what satisfiers and dissatisfiers motivated employees and managers. Several motivational theories on job and career satisfaction followed. Expanding on these studies we have found numerous empirical studies in our literature reviews that have shown many different variables that effect career satisfaction. We have narrowed these variables down to work interactions that affect the family life, and also family interactions that affect the work life. Work-family conflict is a form of role conflict in which the demands of work and the demands of family life conflict. Hugick and Leonard (1991) found in the Gallup survey that 34% of Americans experience a considerable amount of work-family conflict. Several other studies showed that employees who report high levels of work-family conflict had lower job satisfaction. Ernst-Kossek and Ozeki (1998) have found that people with high levels of family conflict tend to be less satisfied with their jobs. Family conflicts can range from childcare, scheduling conflicts with spouse, and work demands required outside of work itself. These conflicts can lead to different levels of involvement in the work place. Adams, King, and King (1996) found that people with higher job involvement have more job satisfaction, but people with higher job involvement have more family conflict. Thomas and Ganster (1995) have shown that flexible scheduling caused a good emotional response from employees and that this flexible scheduling increased the employee’s perception of control. With the flexible scheduling many people like the sense of control because they may have children to pick up from daycare or errands to run that otherwise they would not be able to accomplish. This gives them a more overall satisfaction with their job, and a sense of enjoyment in their work environment. Although this may give many women flexible scheduling, the demand on a women’s time is still very high. Martins, Eddleston, and Veiga (2002) have shown that women will be more conflicted with their careers than men. Saltzstein, Ting, and Saltzstein (2001) stated that Job and family involvement measures the degree to which an individual’s psychological identity is tied to either family or work roles. Individuals who are not married and without children are able to be more involved in work roles causing low work-family conflict. Saltzstein, Ting, and Saltzstein (2001) work-family conflict has been found to be negatively related to several variables that are linked to career satisfaction, such as career progression and career involvement. Furthermore, Judge and Watanabe (1993) have shown that within shorter periods of time job and life satisfaction are strongly related. The purpose of this study is to determine if work-family conflict and job type make a difference with career satisfaction, and whether or not more conflict with the job increases more family conflict. Individuals with high work-family conflict scores should experience less job satisfaction than individuals with low work-family conflict scores. In our study we will be looking at two different types of employment State and retail sales. State employees should experience the same work-family conflict and overall job satisfaction that retail sales employees do.
METHODParticipantsThe participants were from two different sectors of the work force state government and retail. Thirty-eight participants were from the Division of Youth Services from the State of Missouri. These participants work day shifts as well as evening shifts. We also had forty-seven participants from retail sales departments found in major department stores located in East Hills Shopping mall. The participants ranged from 18 to 60 years of age. MaterialsWe used two pen and pencil survey scales. We used one 23-item career satisfaction scale developed from a Thomas and Ganster (1995) study on work-family conflict and the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (1967). The second scale was a 12-item work-family conflict scale developed from Thomas and Ganster (1995) (See Appendix A).ProcedureThe Surveys were distributed to the participants on a voluntary basis. The participants were instructed that the survey was totally anonymous. The participants were then instructed to fill out the first 23-item career satisfaction survey by choosing the answer that best fits the question. They were also asked to fill out the demographic information located after the first survey. Then they were instructed upon the completion of the first survey to fill out the second 12-item work-family conflict survey, only if that participant was married or had children in the household. Upon completion they were asked to turn the survey back in to the researcher.
RESULTS A 2 x 2 ANOVA was calculated to examine the career satisfaction between state employees and retail employees and whether or not they have a family. The main effect for job type was not significant (F(1,81)= .107,p > .05). The main effect for whether or not having a family influenced work-family conflict was also not significant (F(1,81)= .619,p > .05). Finally the interaction was also not significant (F(1,81)= .200, p > .05). Thus, it appears that neither the job type nor having a family has any significant effect on job satisfaction(See Appendix B). An independent t-test was calculated to measure the difference between the work-family scores of the two types of jobs. No significant difference was found (t(29)= -1.579,p > .05). The mean of the retail employees ( m = 42.4, sd = 6.86) was not significantly different from the mean of state employees (m = 37.7, sd = 8.89). A Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated to examine the relationship between work-family conflict and job satisfaction. A weak negative correlation that was non-significant was found (r(29) = -.234,p > .05). Work family conflict is not related to job satisfaction.
DISCUSSION The results show that state employees experienced the same work family conflict and overall job satisfaction that retail sales employees did. However, retail sales experienced slightly higher work-family conflict than state employees. This could possibly be because; there are not steady hours in retail sales than in state jobs. State jobs have a lot more stability than retail; steady hours are always a plus and will allow one to have a set time for the family. With retail the set time can vary from day to day making family conflict situations higher. Job satisfaction from state and retail will provide people who work for the state government and retail stores a means of happiness and self-satisfaction. In our findings, state jobs and retail jobs are closely related when it comes to job satisfaction. One may think that a state job will provide more happiness because of the hours and work pay. Through our research we found that this is not the case at all. Rather, state or retail, the levels of satisfaction in both of these areas are closely related, and show just a slight difference. These findings can be different because of the places of employment that we looked at. There may be greater satisfaction in other state jobs, like a teacher in the classroom or a social worker. Our findings are not particular for every state job out there but just the job location that we took questionnaires to. As far as the retail sales, these findings may just be related to the particular shopping center we gave questionnaires to. It could be different results if we were at a different shopping center. The limitations of this study are that we only sampled one state employment and one shopping mall. The participants sampled were limited in that they all worked in the same area. Other limitations of this study were that we encountered low response rates and the time to complete this study was limited. For future research, researchers could use more than one shopping center, and more than one state employment. We found no difference in the relationship between state employment and retail employment, but is there a relationship between two other sectors of the market? To encounter better response rates, one could account for this by getting more responses. Even though there are many limitations to be looked into, if further research is done this will provide for a broader scope of information to see just how work-family interaction is related to job satisfaction in state and retail sales organizations.
REFERENCESAdams, G. A., King, L. A., & King, D. W. (1996). Relationships of job and family involvement, family social support, and work-family conflict with job and life satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 411-420. Ernst Kossek, E., & Ozeki, C. (1998). Work-Family conflict, policies, and the job-life satisfaction relationship: A review and directions for organizational behavior-human resources research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 139-149. Hugick, L., & Leonard, J. (1991). Job dissatisfaction grows; "moonlighting" on the rise. The Gallup Poll News Service, 56, 1-11. Judge, T. A., & Watanabe, S. (1998). Another look at the job satisfaction-life satisfaction relationship. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 939-948. Martins, L. L., Eddleston, K. A., & Veiga, J. F. (2002). Moderators of the relationship between work-family conflict and career satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 399-409. Saltzstein, A. L., Ting, Y., & Saltzstein, G. H. (2001). Work-family balance and job satisfaction: The impact of family-friendly policies on attitudes of federal government employees. Public Administration Review, 61, 452-467. Thomas, L. T., & Ganster, D. C. (1995). Impact of family-supportive work variables on work-family conflict and strain: A control perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 6-15. Weiss, D. J., Dawis, R. V., England, G. W., & Lofquist, L. H. (1967). Manual for the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (Minnesota Studies on Vocational Rehabilitation, Vol. 22). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Industrial Relations Center.
Submitted 11/19/2002 11:48:42 AM
Last Edited 11/21/2002 8:53:08 AM
Converted to New Site 03/09/2009