Invasion of Personal Space of Smokers and Non-smokers
Sponsored by Missouri Western State University Sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation DUE-97-51113
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The proper APA Style reference for this manuscript is:
CURIN, K. K. (2001). Invasion of Personal Space of Smokers and Non-smokers. National Undergraduate Research Clearinghouse, 4. Available online at http://www.webclearinghouse.net/volume/. Retrieved October 18, 2017 .

Invasion of Personal Space of Smokers and Non-smokers
KELLY K. CURIN
LOYOLA UNIV. DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY

Sponsored by: MUKUL BHALLA (bhalla@loyno.edu)
ABSTRACT
AbstractOne can invade a person`s personal space and observe the person`s reactions to the invasion. This study focused on 60 Caucasian and African American, college-aged, female participants. The independent variable was the amount of space between the researcher and participant`s reaction sparticipant. The researcher manipulated the space variable by sitting more than two arm`s length or less than one arm`s length from the participant. The dependent variable, the participants` verbal and non-verbal reactions, were measured by tabulating the core based on verbal and non-verbal scales. We predicted that the invasion of personal space of a college-age female would result in negative verbal and non-verbal reactions. Our evidence supported this, finding that an invasion of personal space negatively affected participants` verbal and non-verbal reactions. We concluded that personal space invasion has a noticeable effect on an individual`s verbal and non-verbal reactions to that invasion.

Introduction


Methods

Submitted 12/14/2001 1:47:30 PM
Last Edited 12/14/2001 1:55:48 PM
Converted to New Site 03/09/2009

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